A work in progress SEE PAGE FOR ALL LINKS TO PUBLISHED PAPERS
Here are some excerpts from the extensive published papers of continues research into the effective use of Silver Nano Particles against various viruses and other bacterial infections. Includes COVID 19
My contention is that Nano particles can and should be utilized in the fight against Covid 19 so that a new protocol can be put into daily use to TREAT ALL POSITIVE CASES and prevent the virus from developing into a serious illness as it can do if the MANTRA PUT OUT BY THE HEALTH ADVISORS IS FOLLOWED ie: “GET TESTED – GO HOME AND ISOLATE. I find this the WORST possible advice that anyone could give and it is time it was abandoned as it has caused the direct loss of life of 800 mostly here in Victoria and thousnads around the world. It is fortunate the virus is mild compared to the 1918 pandemic WHERE YOU COULD RISE HEALTHY IN THE MORNING AND BE AT THE PEARLY GATES BY SUNSET. It is remarkable that 99% get better anyway and many don’t even know they had it.
We are now about to witness the biggest melt down in our economy since the Depression and may well face anorher depression if we don’ty embrace a NEW PROTOCOL IMMEDIATELY.
First lets us establish proven effective treatments and there are several that can be used effectively. Silver Nano particles and Hydroxyxhlorquine to name two. Once these are trialed officially and accepted we can then embark on a new protocol: AT FIRST SYMPTOMS -GET TESTED – GO HOME- GET TREATED- In three days symproms should be cleared in most cases and get on with life.
For international travel in the States you have a test 72 hours befpre departure and if negative you are good to go. There are 10 minute tests cominmg on stream and tests can be done embarking on a plane and getting off. Immune booster kits can be given to every passneger to ensure no disease will manifest once landing. Silver nano particles will more than likely ensure this. We have all lost a year of our lives so it is time we git a bit smartwre boutr this and accepted some risk and with a TREATEMENT PROTOCOL we can regain our next to normal lives
Antibacterial accomplishment- AgNPs emerge as a substitute of antibacterial agent and have the ability to overcome the bacterial resistance against antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to widen the use of AgNPs as antibacterial agents. Amid various promising nanomaterials, AgNPs appear as a potential medication negotiator because of their massive surface-to-volume ratios
Table 1: Applications of silver nanoparticles in different-different sectors.
Application of AgNPs
1 Biomedical application
2 Texiles application
UV rays blocking textile
Medicinal Textiles and Devices
3 Food industry
Nanotechnology and food packaging
4 Environmental treatment
Drinking water disinfection
Groundwater and biological wastewater disinfection
5 Pharmacological Applications
Wound Healing property
refApplications of Silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors Poonam Verma1 *, Sanjiv Kumar Maheshwari2 1 Research Scholar, Department of Biotechnology, IFTM University, Moradabad, India 2 Professor, Institute of Bio Science and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, LucknowDeva Road, India Received 10 June 2018; revised 29 August 2018; accepted 16 September 2018; available online 18 September 2018 *
Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
How to cite this article Verma P, Maheshwari SK. Applications of Silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors. Int. J. Nano Dimens., 2019; 10 (1): 18-36.
Abstract The review article summarizes the applications of silver nanoparticles for diverse sectors. Over the decades, nanoparticles used as dignified metals such as silver exhibited distinctive characteristics basically correlated to chemical, physical and biological property of counterparts having bulkiness. Numerous studies reported that Nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter play a crucial role in widely spread industries due to unique properties including the dimension of small particle, high surface area and quantum confinement and they dispersed without agglomeration. Decade of discoveries clearly established that shape, size and distribution of Silver nanoparticles strongly affect the electromagnetic, optical and catalytic properties, which are often an assortment of changeable synthetic methods and reducing agents with stabilizers. Generation after generation the postulates come forth about properties of silver for the ancient Greeks cook from silver pots and the old adage ‘born with a silver spoon in his mouth’ thus show that eating with a silver spoon was wellknown as uncontaminated. Impregnation of metals with silver nanoparticles is a practical way to exploit the microbe aggressive properties of silver at very low cost. The nanoparticles help in targeted delivery of drugs, enhancing bioavailability, sustaining drug or gene effect in target tissues, and enhancing the stability. Implementations of silver partials in medical science and biological science have been noticed from years ago; however alteration with nanotechnology is innovative potential. Over 23% of all nanotechnology based products, diagnostic and therapeutic applications implanted with silver nanoparticles (e.g. In arthritic disease and wound healing, etc.) and widely known for their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral effect, employed in textile fabrics and added into cosmetic products as antiseptic to overcome skin problems. Thus, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been urbanized as an advanced artifact in the field of nanotechnology
Silver Nanoparticles with Bronchodilators through Nebulisation to Treat Covid 19 Patients
Dr. Subhasish Sarkar⋆,† Resident Medical Officer Department of General Surgery College of
Medicine and Sagore Dutta Kolkata DOI: https://doi.org/10.15520/jcmro.v3i04.276 Accepted 21-04-2020; Received 01-04-2020; Publish Online 22-04-2020
Reviewed By: Dr. Songul B. Diler Department: Reviewer/CMRO 1
INTRODUCTION: There are no effective antiviral drugs available against the pandemic causing COVID 19 virus. The complex protein – protein interaction between the virus and host is yet to be determined for designing of precise antiviral drugs against corona virus. The pandemic had claimed several thousand lives and had resulted most devastating effects on our mankind. In this scenario a potent drug is needed which will kill the viruses with minimal side effects on human body. Here I propose a novel antiviral therapy for effective killing of COVID19 with minimal side effects. 2
HYPOTHESIS: Application of water dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNP) size 10 nm with bronchodilators in lungs through nebulization with simple nebulizer machine or bi-level ventilation in Corona patients may result in better outcome. Silver has potent antiviral activity. There will be the following effects
- The silver nanoparticles will directly kill the viruses over respiratory epithelium. Antiviral activity with immunomodulatory effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) has already been established in treating RSV .
- Inhalation route for administering silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have never been tried before. Ag+ ions will leach out from the nanoparticles and will exert its antiviral effects through binding with phosphorus or sulfur containing bio-molecules of the virus .
- The Ag+ ions released from the AgNP will result in alteration of pH of the respiratory epithelium to alkaline. This environment will be hostile for the viruses to survive. Experimental evidence suggests there is direct low pH dependent fusion activation of Corona Viruses during entry into host cells .
- As the viral load is reduced in the respiratory epithelium there will be less chance of spread from the infected person to healthy ones. The main source of spread is via coughing or sneezing with expulsion of virus loaded droplets .
- Overall silver has no significant side effects in low concentrations. Preclinical data of avian corona viruses  already exists which further strengthen our proof-of-concept We have to try in different concentrations to determine the maximum antiviral effects and also safety. Till now there is no experimental animal model of COVID 19 is present. So we have to administer silver nanoparticles directly initially in low doses and titer up. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW: The antiviral effects of AgNP may be due to binding of AgNP to surface glycoproteins of RNA viruses preventing the fusion of the virus to host cells . AgNP administration in mice has resulted in significant reduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, CCL5 and IFNs . All these features suggest that AgNP will be an effective drug against the COVID 19. In a pre-clinical study BALB/c mice was inoculated with AgNP and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and significant antiviral and immunomodulatory effect was seen. AgNP up to dose of 4 mg/kg body weight was used without any significant toxicity . On A549 epithelial cell line AgNP (10 – 12 nm size distribution at dose 50 microgram/ml has shown maximum anti viral property without toxicity . AgNP has a very long half life and up to 35-36% of inhaled AgNP can be recovered from rat lungs 56 days after single 6 hours exposure .
Figure 2. Potential antiviral mechanism of silver nanoparticles.
- Silver nanoparticles interact with viral envelope and/or viral surface proteins;
- Silver nanoparticles interact with cell membranes and block viral penetration;
- Silver nanoparticles block cellular pathways of viral entry;
- Silver nanoparticles interact with viral genome;
- Silver nanoparticles interact with viral factors necessary for viral replication;
- Silver nanoparticles interact with cellular factors necessary for productive viral replication.
Antiviral potential of silver nanoparticles against different viruses
As antiviral agents act directly and rapidly on viral particles, bind with virus coat proteins and disrupt either their structure or function. Though any type of metal may exert certain antiviral potential, most research has been carried out to determine the antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (Table 2), and showed that silver nanoparticles are, indeed, the most effective metal-based antiviral agents. Interesting study has been recently carried out where 25-nm AgNPs were able to mediate a consistent reduction in Vaccinia virus (VACV) entry at non-cytotoxic concentrations. AgNPs prevented both direct fusion and macropinocytosis-dependent entry of VACV; in fact cells where a vital component of macropinocytosis (Pak1) had been knocked down showed a reduced loss of AgNP anti-entry effects.
Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that AgNPs bind directly to the entry fusion complex of VACV revealing a potential virucidal mechanism (Gaikwad et al., 2013). Silver nanoparticles interaction with viral biomolecules suggest that silver nanoparticles have a huge potential not only to face the challenge offered by viral infections but also to enhance the quality of existing antiviral therapies.
Depending on the interaction and virucidal effect of silver nanoparticles against viruses such as, hepatitis B virus (Lu et al., 2008), HIV-1 (Elechiguerra et al., 2005; Lara et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2005) herpes simplex virus type 1 (Baram-Pinto et al., 2009), respiratory syncytial virus (Sun et al., 2008), tacaribe virus (Speshock et al., 2010), monkeypox virus (Rogers et al., 2008) and influenza virus (Mehrbod et al., 2009; Xiang et al., 2011), it can be predicted that silver nanoparticles act as protective antiviral shields (Figure 1). Silver nanoparticles have shown antiviral efficacy against several viruses regardless of the specific family, therefore silver nanoparticles provide the opportunity of developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. This is one of the major point in favor of the development of silver nanoparticles as antiviral drug, since they might be of sure benefit when facing unknown viruses or viruses for which we lack specific antivirals.
Metal nanoparticles: The protective nanoshield against virus infection Mahendra Rai1 , Shivaji D. Deshmukh1 , Avinash P. Ingle1 , Indarchand R. Gupta1,2, Massimiliano Galdiero3 , and Stefania Galdiero3 1 Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, Government Institute of Science, Nipatniranjan Nagar, Caves Road, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India and 3 CIRPEB, University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Abstract Re-emergence of resistance in different pathogens including viruses are the major cause of human disease and death, which is posing a serious challenge to the medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors. Though many efforts have been made to develop drug and vaccines against re-emerging viruses, researchers are continuously engaged in the development of novel, cheap and broad-spectrum antiviral agents, not only to fight against viruses but also to act as a protective shield against pathogens attack. Current advancement in nanotechnology provides a novel platform for the development of potential and effective agents by modifying the materials at nanolevel with remarkable physicochemical properties, high surface area to volume ratio and increased reactivity. Among metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have strong antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential to boost the host immunity against pathogen attack. Nevertheless, the interaction of silver nanoparticles with viruses is a largely unexplored field. The present review discusses antiviral activity of the metal nanoparticles, especially the mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles, against different viruses such HSV, HIV, HBV, MPV, RSV, etc. It is also focused on how silver nanoparticles can be used in therapeutics by considering their cytotoxic level, to avoid human and environmental risks
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-known antimicrobial materials effective against many types of bacteria [1-3] and fungi . The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ag NPs are mainly due to the inhibition of respiratory enzymes by released Ag+ ions [1,5]. Recently, the antimicrobial activities of Ag NPs against viruses such as HIV- 1 [6,7], hepatitis B , herpes simplex , respiratory syncytial , monkeypox , Tacaribe , and H1N1 influenza A virus [13,14] have also been investigated. Unlike its antibacterial and antifungal activities, the major antiviral mechanism of Ag NPs is likely the physical inhibition of binding between the virus and host cell. A dependence of the size of Ag NPs on antiviral activity was observed for the viruses mentioned above; for example, Ag NPs smaller than 10 nm specifically inhibited infection by HIV-1 . This property of Ag NPs holds promise that antimicrobial materials based on Ag NPs will be effective against many types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus.
Yasutaka Mori1,2, Takeshi Ono3 , Yasushi Miyahira3 , Vinh Quang Nguyen4 , Takemi Matsui4 and Masayuki Ishihara2*
Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity
In conclusion, silver nanoparticles are effective virucides as they inactivate HIV particles in a short period of time, exerting their activity at an early stage of viral replication (entry or fusion) and at postentry stages. The data presented here contribute to a new and still largely unexplored area; the use of nanomaterials against specific targets of viral particles.
Mode of antiviral action of silver nanoparticles against HIV-1
Humberto H Lara* , Nilda V Ayala-Nuñez, Liliana Ixtepan-Turrent, Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla
Background: Silver nanoparticles have proven to exert antiviral activity against HIV-1 at non-cytotoxic concentrations, but the mechanism underlying their HIV-inhibitory activity has not been not fully elucidated. In this study, silver nanoparticles are evaluated to elucidate their mode of antiviral action against HIV-1 using a panel of different in vitro assays. Results: Our data suggest that silver nanoparticles exert anti-HIV activity at an early stage of viral replication, most likely as a virucidal agent or as an inhibitor of viral entry. Silver nanoparticles bind to gp120 in a manner that prevents CD4-dependent virion binding, fusion, and infectivity, acting as an effective virucidal agent against cellfree virus (laboratory strains, clinical isolates, T and M tropic strains, and resistant strains) and cell-associated virus. Besides, silver nanoparticles inhibit post-entry stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Conclusions: These properties make them a broad-spectrum agent not prone to inducing resistance that could be used preventively against a wide variety of circulating HIV-1 strains.
Other useful applications
It is seen that Silver nanoparticles have the antiviral and antimicrobial activities against several pathogens. Their utility is incorporated in materials and biomedical applications (41). Nanoparticles are used as additives in health care such as bandages and catheters for healing of wounds and burns in less time. Ag/Na carboxymethyl cotton burn dressing is used for the applications in surgical dressings. They are also used in common products such as water purification systems, domestic products, cosmetic products and emulsions to prevent harmful micro flora (42).
- Conclusion In this era, when drug and vaccine development for the removal of various viral diseases is riding high, some viral strains have emerged that are resistant against the drugs and vaccines, like HIV. So it is important to introduce the multidisciplinary approaches with the classical epidemiology, along with the clinical phases to introduce a new drug or vaccine which proves highly beneficial against the resistant strain. Nanotechnology is the one that gives the opportunity to re-discover biological properties of ancient antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Nanoparticles, mainly silver have antiviral activities against the many viruses of today that are playing havoc with lives worldwide. Extensive research and clinical trials need to be carried out so as to accentuate the efficacy of this medical marvel towards betterment of the health of the global population.
Silver nanoparticles of different diameters such as 10 nm and 50 nm interact with HBV dsDNA and viral particles are able to inhibit the viral replication and extracellular virions. The toxicity of silver nanoparticles against the HepAD38 cells was determined at the concentration of 5-50µM. The viability of cells decreases at 50µM for both 10nm and 50 nm silver nanoparticles. 800nm silver nanoparticles shows the severe toxicity at even 5µM due to the aggregation of silver nanoparticles. At the concentration of 5µM for both 10 nm and 50 nm silver nanoparticles the observed cell viability was 90 % (29). For the 10nm silver nanoparticles the viral inhibition was 38% at 5µM and 80% at 50 µM. As well as 53% and 92% inhibition was shown at the concentration of 5µM and 50µM respectively for the 50nm silver nanoparticles. 10 nm silver nanoparticles showed good binding capacity to HBV virus which is shown by the transmission electron microscopy. Only 54% and 12% unbound virus were detected after 10 min and 60 min incubation respectively 10nm silver Nanoparticle was distributed in the cytoplasm and bind to the virus. Thus silver nanoparticles show high binding affinity for HBV dsDNA and extracellular virions (29).
- Nanotechnology Nanotechnology deals with structures ranging from approximately 1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension. The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in contemporary materials science. Nanoparticles have completely new or improved properties which are based on specific characteristics like size, shape, crystalline structure and morphology. This field is emerging with new discoveries every day, making an impact on all spheres of human life. The potential of nanoparticles and nonmaterial are emerging rapidly(12, 13). Silver in nanocrystalline form has found marvelous applications in the field of high sensitivity bio molecular detection, disease and chemical diagnostics, antimicrobial and therapeutic compounds, catalysis and micro-electronics. Nanoparticles have also been used in consumer products, as well as electronics, sensors, munitions, and propulsion technologies (14).
APPLICATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN VIRAL INHIBITION: A NEW HOPE FOR ANTIVIRALS N. KHANDELWAL* ,
G. KAUR, N. KUMARa , A. TIWARI School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Airport Road, Bhopal. 462036, Madhya Pradesh, India a Division of Animal Health, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,