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The media has launched a ‘tirade on me’: Craig Kelly


Liberal MP Craig Kelly says the media has launched a “tirade” and accused him of misinformation, but whenever he asks them for evidence they “simply don’t do it”. Discussing the backlash he has received over recent comments, Mr Kelly said the prime minister is “in favour of free speech.” “He understands the importance of free speech.” CLICK HERE FOR LINK

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IF COVID-19 Is NOT A Coronavirus! – Then what is it!

“As an Integrative Health Consultant and Coronavirus Coach, I saw early on that COVID-19 was not a coronavirus.  My first Covid patient began presenting classic Covid symptoms during the first week of December of 2019.  Because of how resistant it was to practically every treatment we prescribed, we knew it was a NOT just a coronavirus. 




Anyone who doubts this critical analysis ought to closely watch the following video presentation by Dr. Lawrence Palevsky: Covid-19 Gain in Function “parasite infection” (Video)

Even Dr. Fauci has talked about the fact that illegal work on biological weapons can no longer be conducted in the United States.  Which is why they farmed out the top-secret Covid “gain of function” project to a high-security, bio-lab located at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.  That necessary “gain of function” technology was apparently used to add a parasite into the Covid microbial mix…among other debilitating and evasive pathogens.

Now the question remains: Specifically, what other pathogenic micro-organisms have been bioengineered into COVID-19?  And, are new infection agents being added with each generation of the Covid bioweapon?  Also, are there bioengineered pathogens being inserted to target certain bloodlines, or races, or nations, or geographic locations, etc.?

It does appear that each successive flu season, henceforth, will be used to keep the so-called Coronavirus pandemic on the radar screen for the rest of our lives.  For only in this way can this Plandemic be used to foist THE GREAT RESET on the entire planetary civilization with relatively little popular dissent.

Such a nefarious plan to implement a never-ending global pandemic has also facilitated the surreptitious administration of the long-anticipated FunVax injection.  And it doesn’t get any worse than FUNVAX: Globalist Plot to Mandate COVID-19 Vaccine Exposes Shocking Satanic Conspiracy.

Lastly, it’s vital for folks to understand that the THE GREAT SCAMDEMIC OF 2020 IS COLLAPSING… … … faster than the Twin Tower on 9/11.  That’s because very courageous heroes like Kary Mullis conducted truth-telling interviews like this one: PCR Test Creator Reveals Raw Truth About Its Testing Deficiency and Dr. Fauci’s Corruption at NIAID (Video)

TheTruth Movement also needs to fully support the brave souls who produced the indispensable Covid videos at this link: 3 CRITICAL COVID VIDEOS.  You know the deal: “When in doubt, send them out” … far and wide … so that patriots everywhere are exposed to this life-saving information.  Thank you for doing your part!

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HERALD SUN – DEC 17 – It’s great to see that what I suggested long a go is now a reality but they don’t seem to see the great potential for this type of defense. It is the ideal thing to use on aeroplanes for instance, cruise ships, interstate train trips…any place where people are crammed together. On this web site we have suggested that SILVER NANO PARTICLES is ideal as a nasal spray but who cares as long as it does no harm and can destroy the virus before it gets a chance to settle in. The research papers claim that Nano Silver destroys the virus in minutes! This makes perfect sense and way back in March the first things I did was to purchase a Nasal spray for colds and filled it with my own home made Colloidal silver. ( Kits available) Back then when we thought people would be dying all over the place I would spray it up the nose when ever I went out and gargle and took 30 mil…If only they would do that in the USA or the UK I would dare to suggest very few would get sick let along die unless their immune system was already totally stuffed.. Of course it is suggested that lots of Vitamin D and C is essential and zinc as a great immune preventative but few are saying this even though the research strongly suggests these precautions.

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Covid 19 data for the world

Keep up to date with the world data. As we know the cases in Europe and America are expanding rapidly but please note that the DEATH curve is not following. They are building herd immunity. I have addressed this issue a lot and advocate a TREATMENT PROTOCOL and IMMUNE BOOSTING for all Positive cases. I would suggest that there would be even fewer deaths. However it is ironic that you have to have a TEST to see if you have a disease. This really is la la land stuff. If only they would make us all responsible to treat our selves and of course protect the vulnerable. this is where they have forgotten the basics of how to quarantine and this the tragic loss of life in the aged care sectors. The price of dumbing down and neglect of the health department in Victoria at least.

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My friend is in the most vulnerable bracket at 80 years old, he was a heavy smoker all his life until the Emphysema took over and would have killed him very quickly had he not given up some 23 years ago. At that time the Doctor gave him 6 months to live if he kept smoking. He had less than 50% lung capacity. A very dire state indeed if contracting any respiratory infection.

Each year he has the flu shot as a precaution. This year he has been very concerned for his health and goes to extreme measures to sanitize his home, his door knobs constantly wiped and was wearing a mask before we had to.

About ten days ago he was getting petrol and did not wear his mask nor was the Indian chap serving him who was chatting on the phone for some time before serving my friend. His droplets could have been filling the air with vigourous chatting on the phone as well touching the money change from one hundred dollars.

Three days later at 4 am my friend awoke very ill, high fever, no taste, vomiting, his airway partially blocked and difficult breathing. He was very very weak and considered himself very ill.

At about 7.30am he took a strong dose of colloidal silver he made himself.

This gentleman has been much of my inspiration in researching this subject over the last few months as it has been so successful in treating normal infections so very effectively for so many years.

At about 12.30 he took another large dose ( about 100 ml) and he was able to gargle with it and get it up the nose canal from the rear of the throat. In my case I squirt it up the nose and get it down the back of the throat that way.

The main point is to hit the virus in the upper respiratory canals where is first settles and makes base camp. It is so vital to hit it before it gets to the Lungs. In this case he doesn’t think it had progressed to the lungs and by 4pm he was able to eat with out bringing up food and the next day he was basically symptom free.


Yes indeed miraculous when you compare this to all the stuff we hear on the media every day scaring the Hell out of us all. I have said from day ONE. TREAT THE DAMN THING!.

Even now they say very little about treatment. Just go home and stay alone thus letting it take over you. Our TGA has only approved one treatment so far from July 10. See my articles on this web site.

I hope this assists people to take charge of their health. No one else will sadly.

NOTICE: I have written to the PM, Gregg Hunt MP, The Treasurer and others but never a reply. I have sent the PEER REVIEW PUBLISHED PAPERS. It seems no one want to know.

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Voices against lockdowns

Dear all,

Since I last wrote a month ago, a number of momentous events have signalling movement globally and within Australia away from economic lockdowns in response to Covid.  I have selected several to highlight here.  As always, please forward to others as you deem appropriate.

The WHO has changed its stance on lockdowns:

large group of medical professionals has spoken out against lockdowns, and is racking up signatures on its open letter, christened “The Great Barrington Declaration” (members of the public are also welcome to sign; I have signed):

Ramesh Thakur has put together this excellent webinar setting out the case against lockdowns:

Sanjeev Sabhlok, the courageous economist who quit the Victorian Treasury on principle, has produced the attached paper (“PAPER FOR GIFFITH”) and published this book.  He and I will be appearing together in an event on the evening of Thursday 15 October, being organised by Beverley McArthur, Member of the Victorian Parliament for the Western Victoria Region.

Facebook group called “End the Lockdown Australia” has been organised – for details, see:

Quoting from organiser Tim Flynn, “The End The Lockdown Australia Group was established in mid-April 2020 and was set up to allow ordinary Australians to feel comfortable debating the merits of government policy from an economic and societal perspective. My rationale for establishing the group is included in my submission to the Senate inquiry into the management of COVID (submission 377) : The group now has 4,200 members; it would have been much larger but we have a policy of deterring conspiracy theorists and extremists. Two cross bench members of the Victorian upper house are active members, as are several prominent journalists.”

group of Belgian doctors has penned this Open Letter:

My fellow economist Henry Ergas published this beautifully written piece in The Australian last Friday.

Catholic bishop in America has spoken out publicly against lockdowns:

Sibby Ilzhofer ( is helping to organise small businesses that are interested in joining forces with others in a collective effort to lodge affidavits with the Victorian and New South Wales governments, affirming the damage of lockdowns.  If you or people known to you are involved in a small business and looking to re-open but are struggling due to governmental restrictions – including but not limited to lockdowns – please email Sibby for further information about how to get involved.

On a drier academic front, I have published the attached paper, documenting some of the costs of the lockdowns to the present and future Australian labour market, in the Australian Journal of Labour Economics.  I will also be giving an address at the Economic Society of Australia on 26 October, in which I will speak amongst other things about the failure of my profession in what should have been its finest hour – advertisement here:

I have also been invited to give evidence on 22 October at a session of the Treasury of the United Kingdom, regarding the economic costs of lockdowns.  I will draw partly on my own cost-benefit analysis of the lockdowns in Australia (linked to in one of my earlier missives, to which you can scroll down), but if you come across any detailed, well-referenced costings of lockdowns here or in other countries, please forward them to me for possible referral in my evidence.

Finally, a brief word on the future.  As the world slowly turns away from wholesale economic lockdowns as the appropriate policy response to Covid, the raison d’etre of this “voices against lockdowns” group will inevitably fade.  I will continue to speak out in public forums against lockdowns and other blanket economic restrictions, and I will also speak in favour of what I consider to be positive future directions for the country, as the debate moves on and the focus intensifies on what to do to get Australia out of the economic mess that has been created.  I plan to stop using this mailing list once we see Australia ease restrictions, including opening borders.

It is an honour to fight with you against this staggeringly damaging policy fumble.  Thank you for your continuing efforts in service to this worthy cause.


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Dr Reiner Füllmich – send everywhere. A game changer
Dr Reiner Fullmich


The early cover up
Victoria is the new North Korea…lets compare
Should we wear a face mask?

Crimes against Humanity: COVID Class Action Lawsuits Incoming

Dr Reiner Fuellmich, a lawyer who’s been a member of the bar in both Germany and California for 26 years and whose English is that of a native speaker discusses the findings of the International Corona Investigative Committee that was formed on July 10, 2020 by lawyers, doctors, and scientists.

This group originally set out to determine: 1) How dangerous is the virus? 2) What is the significance of a positive test? 3) What collateral damage has been caused by the corona measures in regards to the world’s health and economy?

They have jointly reached the conclusion that COVID-19 may be the greatest crime against humanity in history.

Dr Fuellmich has apparently litigated with success against Deutsche Bank and Volkswagen and he lays out a legal case of crimes against humanity for enforcing lockdowns based on the fraudulent use of PCR test results.

He says the COVID-19 measures imposed, such as social distancing, wearing a mask, lockdown and quarantine are designed to “make people panic so that they believe without asking questions that their lives are in danger, so that in the end, the pharmaceutical and tech industries can generate huge profits from the sale of PCR tests, antigen and antibody tests and vaccines, as well as the harvesting of our genetic fingerprint.”

However, Fuellmich says, “The allegedly new and highly-dangerous coronavirus has not caused any excess mortality anywhere in the world and certainly not here, in Germany but the anti-corona measures, whose only bases are the PCR test results…have, in the meantime caused the loss of innumerable human lives and have destroyed the economic existence of countless companies and individuals worldwide…

“In Australia, for example, people are thrown into prison if they do not wear a mask or do not wear it properly, as deemed by the authorities. In the Philippines, people who do not wear a mask or do not wear it properly…are getting shot in the head…

“If the PCR tests had not been used as a diagnostic tool for corona infections, there would not be a ‘pandemic’ and there would be no lockdowns but everything would have been perceived as just a medium or light wave of influenza…

“As a result of the deliberate panic-mongering and the corona measures enabled by this panic, democracy is in great danger of being replaced by fascist totalitarian models, as I already mentioned above in Australia…

“As more and more independent studies and expert statements show, under the rules of Civil Tort law, all those who have been harmed by these PCR test-induced lockdowns are entitled to receive full compensation for their losses.”

Dr Fuellmich describes the detailed paper written by Stephen Kohn, an official at Germany’s Department of the Interior, who is responsible for risk assessment and the protection of the population against risks was leaked recently, called the False Alarm Paper. This paper comes to the conclusion that there was and is no sufficient evidence for serious health risks for the population, as claimed by German health authorities and the WHO.

Kohn concludes that, due to the preponderance of evidence, the government will be held responsible for the damages it inflicted upon the population.

Dr Fuellmich says the crimes committed by various health authorities and the WHO must be legally qualified as actual crimes against humanity, as defined in Section 7 of the International Criminal Code and he suggests that the path forward to compensatory damages and to political consequences is through the Class Action lawsuit.

Were the people of the world to succeed in such cases, the WHO and all government entities responsible for enforcing this COVID fraud and crimes against humanity could be bankrupted and forced to disband, in a backfire of unimaginably epic proportions.

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Here are some excerpts from the extensive published papers of continues research into the effective use of Silver Nano Particles against various viruses and other bacterial infections. Includes COVID 19

My contention is that Nano particles can and should be utilized in the fight against Covid 19 so that a new protocol can be put into daily use to TREAT ALL POSITIVE CASES and prevent the virus from developing into a serious illness as it can do if the MANTRA PUT OUT BY THE HEALTH ADVISORS IS FOLLOWED ie: “GET TESTED – GO HOME AND ISOLATE. I find this the WORST possible advice that anyone could give and it is time it was abandoned as it has caused the direct loss of life of 800 mostly here in Victoria and thousnads around the world. It is fortunate the virus is mild compared to the 1918 pandemic WHERE YOU COULD RISE HEALTHY IN THE MORNING AND BE AT THE PEARLY GATES BY SUNSET. It is remarkable that 99% get better anyway and many don’t even know they had it.

We are now about to witness the biggest melt down in our economy since the Depression and may well face anorher depression if we don’ty embrace a NEW PROTOCOL IMMEDIATELY.

First lets us establish proven effective treatments and there are several that can be used effectively. Silver Nano particles and Hydroxyxhlorquine to name two. Once these are trialed officially and accepted we can then embark on a new protocol: AT FIRST SYMPTOMS -GET TESTED – GO HOME- GET TREATED- In three days symproms should be cleared in most cases and get on with life.

For international travel in the States you have a test 72 hours befpre departure and if negative you are good to go. There are 10 minute tests cominmg on stream and tests can be done embarking on a plane and getting off. Immune booster kits can be given to every passneger to ensure no disease will manifest once landing. Silver nano particles will more than likely ensure this. We have all lost a year of our lives so it is time we git a bit smartwre boutr this and accepted some risk and with a TREATEMENT PROTOCOL we can regain our next to normal lives


Antibacterial accomplishment- AgNPs emerge as a substitute of antibacterial agent and have the ability to overcome the bacterial resistance against antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to widen the use of AgNPs as antibacterial agents. Amid various promising nanomaterials, AgNPs appear as a potential medication negotiator because of their massive surface-to-volume ratios

Table 1: Applications of silver nanoparticles in different-different sectors.

Application of AgNPs

1 Biomedical application 

Antibacterial accomplishment 

Antifungal accomplishment 

Antiviral accomplishment 

Anti-inflammatory accomplishment 

Anti-angiogenic activity 

Anticancer exploit

2 Texiles application 

UV rays blocking textile 

Medicinal Textiles and Devices

3 Food industry 

Nanotechnology and food packaging 

Food processing

4 Environmental treatment 

Air disinfection 

Water disinfection 

Drinking water disinfection 

Groundwater and biological wastewater disinfection

5 Pharmacological Applications 

Antimicrobial activity 

Larvicidal Activity 

Wound Healing property

6 Miscellaneous 

Water treatment 

Catalytic activity

refApplications of Silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors Poonam Verma1 *, Sanjiv Kumar Maheshwari2 1 Research Scholar, Department of Biotechnology, IFTM University, Moradabad, India 2 Professor, Institute of Bio Science and Technology, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, LucknowDeva Road, India Received 10 June 2018; revised 29 August 2018; accepted 16 September 2018; available online 18 September 2018 *

Corresponding Author Email:

How to cite this article Verma P, Maheshwari SK. Applications of Silver nanoparticles in diverse sectors. Int. J. Nano Dimens., 2019; 10 (1): 18-36.

Abstract The review article summarizes the applications of silver nanoparticles for diverse sectors. Over the decades, nanoparticles used as dignified metals such as silver exhibited distinctive characteristics basically correlated to chemical, physical and biological property of counterparts having bulkiness. Numerous studies reported that Nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter play a crucial role in widely spread industries due to unique properties including the dimension of small particle, high surface area and quantum confinement and they dispersed without agglomeration. Decade of discoveries clearly established that shape, size and distribution of Silver nanoparticles strongly affect the electromagnetic, optical and catalytic properties, which are often an assortment of changeable synthetic methods and reducing agents with stabilizers. Generation after generation the postulates come forth about properties of silver for the ancient Greeks cook from silver pots and the old adage ‘born with a silver spoon in his mouth’ thus show that eating with a silver spoon was wellknown as uncontaminated. Impregnation of metals with silver nanoparticles is a practical way to exploit the microbe aggressive properties of silver at very low cost. The nanoparticles help in targeted delivery of drugs, enhancing bioavailability, sustaining drug or gene effect in target tissues, and enhancing the stability. Implementations of silver partials in medical science and biological science have been noticed from years ago; however alteration with nanotechnology is innovative potential. Over 23% of all nanotechnology based products, diagnostic and therapeutic applications implanted with silver nanoparticles (e.g. In arthritic disease and wound healing, etc.) and widely known for their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral effect, employed in textile fabrics and added into cosmetic products as antiseptic to overcome skin problems. Thus, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been urbanized as an advanced artifact in the field of nanotechnology

Silver Nanoparticles with Bronchodilators through Nebulisation to Treat Covid 19 Patients

Dr. Subhasish Sarkar⋆,† Resident Medical Officer Department of General Surgery College of

Medicine and Sagore Dutta Kolkata DOI: Accepted 21-04-2020; Received 01-04-2020; Publish Online 22-04-2020

Reviewed By: Dr. Songul B. Diler Department: Reviewer/CMRO 1

INTRODUCTION: There are no effective antiviral drugs available against the pandemic causing COVID 19 virus. The complex protein – protein interaction between the virus and host is yet to be determined for designing of precise antiviral drugs against corona virus. The pandemic had claimed several thousand lives and had resulted most devastating effects on our mankind. In this scenario a potent drug is needed which will kill the viruses with minimal side effects on human body. Here I propose a novel antiviral therapy for effective killing of COVID19 with minimal side effects. 2

HYPOTHESIS: Application of water dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNP) size 10 nm with bronchodilators in lungs through nebulization with simple nebulizer machine or bi-level ventilation in Corona patients may result in better outcome. Silver has potent antiviral activity. There will be the following effects

  1. The silver nanoparticles will directly kill the viruses over respiratory epithelium. Antiviral activity with immunomodulatory effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) has already been established in treating RSV [1].
  2. Inhalation route for administering silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have never been tried before. Ag+ ions will leach out from the nanoparticles and will exert its antiviral effects through binding with phosphorus or sulfur containing bio-molecules of the virus [2].
  3. The Ag+ ions released from the AgNP will result in alteration of pH of the respiratory epithelium to alkaline. This environment will be hostile for the viruses to survive. Experimental evidence suggests there is direct low pH dependent fusion activation of Corona Viruses during entry into host cells [3].
  4. As the viral load is reduced in the respiratory epithelium there will be less chance of spread from the infected person to healthy ones. The main source of spread is via coughing or sneezing with expulsion of virus loaded droplets [4].
  5. Overall silver has no significant side effects in low concentrations. Preclinical data of avian corona viruses [3] already exists which further strengthen our proof-of-concept We have to try in different concentrations to determine the maximum antiviral effects and also safety. Till now there is no experimental animal model of COVID 19 is present. So we have to administer silver nanoparticles directly initially in low doses and titer up. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW: The antiviral effects of AgNP may be due to binding of AgNP to surface glycoproteins of RNA viruses preventing the fusion of the virus to host cells [5]. AgNP administration in mice has resulted in significant reduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, CCL5 and IFNs [1]. All these features suggest that AgNP will be an effective drug against the COVID 19. In a pre-clinical study BALB/c mice was inoculated with AgNP and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and significant antiviral and immunomodulatory effect was seen. AgNP up to dose of 4 mg/kg body weight was used without any significant toxicity [1]. On A549 epithelial cell line AgNP (10 – 12 nm size distribution at dose 50 microgram/ml has shown maximum anti viral property without toxicity [1]. AgNP has a very long half life and up to 35-36% of inhaled AgNP can be recovered from rat lungs 56 days after single 6 hours exposure [6].

Figure 2. Potential antiviral mechanism of silver nanoparticles.

  1. Silver nanoparticles interact with viral envelope and/or viral surface proteins;
  2. Silver nanoparticles interact with cell membranes and block viral penetration;
  3. Silver nanoparticles block cellular pathways of viral entry;
  4. Silver nanoparticles interact with viral genome;
  5. Silver nanoparticles interact with viral factors necessary for viral replication;
  1. Silver nanoparticles interact with cellular factors necessary for productive viral replication.

Antiviral potential of silver nanoparticles against different viruses

As antiviral agents act directly and rapidly on viral particles, bind with virus coat proteins and disrupt either their structure or function. Though any type of metal may exert certain antiviral potential, most research has been carried out to determine the antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (Table 2), and showed that silver nanoparticles are, indeed, the most effective metal-based antiviral agents. Interesting study has been recently carried out where 25-nm AgNPs were able to mediate a consistent reduction in Vaccinia virus (VACV) entry at non-cytotoxic concentrations. AgNPs prevented both direct fusion and macropinocytosis-dependent entry of VACV; in fact cells where a vital component of macropinocytosis (Pak1) had been knocked down showed a reduced loss of AgNP anti-entry effects.

Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that AgNPs bind directly to the entry fusion complex of VACV revealing a potential virucidal mechanism (Gaikwad et al., 2013). Silver nanoparticles interaction with viral biomolecules suggest that silver nanoparticles have a huge potential not only to face the challenge offered by viral infections but also to enhance the quality of existing antiviral therapies.

Depending on the interaction and virucidal effect of silver nanoparticles against viruses such as, hepatitis B virus (Lu et al., 2008), HIV-1 (Elechiguerra et al., 2005; Lara et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2005) herpes simplex virus type 1 (Baram-Pinto et al., 2009), respiratory syncytial virus (Sun et al., 2008), tacaribe virus (Speshock et al., 2010), monkeypox virus (Rogers et al., 2008) and influenza virus (Mehrbod et al., 2009; Xiang et al., 2011), it can be predicted that silver nanoparticles act as protective antiviral shields (Figure 1). Silver nanoparticles have shown antiviral efficacy against several viruses regardless of the specific family, therefore silver nanoparticles provide the opportunity of developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. This is one of the major point in favor of the development of silver nanoparticles as antiviral drug, since they might be of sure benefit when facing unknown viruses or viruses for which we lack specific antivirals.

Metal nanoparticles: The protective nanoshield against virus infection Mahendra Rai1 , Shivaji D. Deshmukh1 , Avinash P. Ingle1 , Indarchand R. Gupta1,2, Massimiliano Galdiero3 , and Stefania Galdiero3 1 Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, 2 Department of Biotechnology, Government Institute of Science, Nipatniranjan Nagar, Caves Road, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India and 3 CIRPEB, University of Naples, Naples, Italy

Abstract Re-emergence of resistance in different pathogens including viruses are the major cause of human disease and death, which is posing a serious challenge to the medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors. Though many efforts have been made to develop drug and vaccines against re-emerging viruses, researchers are continuously engaged in the development of novel, cheap and broad-spectrum antiviral agents, not only to fight against viruses but also to act as a protective shield against pathogens attack. Current advancement in nanotechnology provides a novel platform for the development of potential and effective agents by modifying the materials at nanolevel with remarkable physicochemical properties, high surface area to volume ratio and increased reactivity. Among metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have strong antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential to boost the host immunity against pathogen attack. Nevertheless, the interaction of silver nanoparticles with viruses is a largely unexplored field. The present review discusses antiviral activity of the metal nanoparticles, especially the mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles, against different viruses such HSV, HIV, HBV, MPV, RSV, etc. It is also focused on how silver nanoparticles can be used in therapeutics by considering their cytotoxic level, to avoid human and environmental risks

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-known antimicrobial materials effective against many types of bacteria [1-3] and fungi [4]. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ag NPs are mainly due to the inhibition of respiratory enzymes by released Ag+ ions [1,5]. Recently, the antimicrobial activities of Ag NPs against viruses such as HIV- 1 [6,7], hepatitis B [8], herpes simplex [9], respiratory syncytial [10], monkeypox [11], Tacaribe [12], and H1N1 influenza A virus [13,14] have also been investigated. Unlike its antibacterial and antifungal activities, the major antiviral mechanism of Ag NPs is likely the physical inhibition of binding between the virus and host cell. A dependence of the size of Ag NPs on antiviral activity was observed for the viruses mentioned above; for example, Ag NPs smaller than 10 nm specifically inhibited infection by HIV-1 [6]. This property of Ag NPs holds promise that antimicrobial materials based on Ag NPs will be effective against many types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus.

Yasutaka Mori1,2, Takeshi Ono3 , Yasushi Miyahira3 , Vinh Quang Nguyen4 , Takemi Matsui4 and Masayuki Ishihara2*


Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity

In conclusion, silver nanoparticles are effective virucides as they inactivate HIV particles in a short period of time, exerting their activity at an early stage of viral replication (entry or fusion) and at postentry stages. The data presented here contribute to a new and still largely unexplored area; the use of nanomaterials against specific targets of viral particles.

Mode of antiviral action of silver nanoparticles against HIV-1

Humberto H Lara* , Nilda V Ayala-Nuñez, Liliana Ixtepan-Turrent, Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla


Background: Silver nanoparticles have proven to exert antiviral activity against HIV-1 at non-cytotoxic concentrations, but the mechanism underlying their HIV-inhibitory activity has not been not fully elucidated. In this study, silver nanoparticles are evaluated to elucidate their mode of antiviral action against HIV-1 using a panel of different in vitro assays. Results: Our data suggest that silver nanoparticles exert anti-HIV activity at an early stage of viral replication, most likely as a virucidal agent or as an inhibitor of viral entry. Silver nanoparticles bind to gp120 in a manner that prevents CD4-dependent virion binding, fusion, and infectivity, acting as an effective virucidal agent against cellfree virus (laboratory strains, clinical isolates, T and M tropic strains, and resistant strains) and cell-associated virus. Besides, silver nanoparticles inhibit post-entry stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Conclusions: These properties make them a broad-spectrum agent not prone to inducing resistance that could be used preventively against a wide variety of circulating HIV-1 strains.

Other useful applications

It is seen that Silver nanoparticles have the antiviral and antimicrobial activities against several pathogens. Their utility is incorporated in materials and biomedical applications (41). Nanoparticles are used as additives in health care such as bandages and catheters for healing of wounds and burns in less time. Ag/Na carboxymethyl cotton burn dressing is used for the applications in surgical dressings. They are also used in common products such as water purification systems, domestic products, cosmetic products and emulsions to prevent harmful micro flora (42).

  1. Conclusion In this era, when drug and vaccine development for the removal of various viral diseases is riding high, some viral strains have emerged that are resistant against the drugs and vaccines, like HIV. So it is important to introduce the multidisciplinary approaches with the classical epidemiology, along with the clinical phases to introduce a new drug or vaccine which proves highly beneficial against the resistant strain. Nanotechnology is the one that gives the opportunity to re-discover biological properties of ancient antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. Nanoparticles, mainly silver have antiviral activities against the many viruses of today that are playing havoc with lives worldwide. Extensive research and clinical trials need to be carried out so as to accentuate the efficacy of this medical marvel towards betterment of the health of the global population.

Silver nanoparticles of different diameters such as 10 nm and 50 nm interact with HBV dsDNA and viral particles are able to inhibit the viral replication and extracellular virions. The toxicity of silver nanoparticles against the HepAD38 cells was determined at the concentration of 5-50µM. The viability of cells decreases at 50µM for both 10nm and 50 nm silver nanoparticles. 800nm silver nanoparticles shows the severe toxicity at even 5µM due to the aggregation of silver nanoparticles. At the concentration of 5µM for both 10 nm and 50 nm silver nanoparticles the observed cell viability was 90 % (29). For the 10nm silver nanoparticles the viral inhibition was 38% at 5µM and 80% at 50 µM. As well as 53% and 92% inhibition was shown at the concentration of 5µM and 50µM respectively for the 50nm silver nanoparticles. 10 nm silver nanoparticles showed good binding capacity to HBV virus which is shown by the transmission electron microscopy. Only 54% and 12% unbound virus were detected after 10 min and 60 min incubation respectively 10nm silver Nanoparticle was distributed in the cytoplasm and bind to the virus. Thus silver nanoparticles show high binding affinity for HBV dsDNA and extracellular virions (29).

  1. Nanotechnology Nanotechnology deals with structures ranging from approximately 1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension. The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in contemporary materials science. Nanoparticles have completely new or improved properties which are based on specific characteristics like size, shape, crystalline structure and morphology. This field is emerging with new discoveries every day, making an impact on all spheres of human life. The potential of nanoparticles and nonmaterial are emerging rapidly(12, 13). Silver in nanocrystalline form has found marvelous applications in the field of high sensitivity bio molecular detection, disease and chemical diagnostics, antimicrobial and therapeutic compounds, catalysis and micro-electronics. Nanoparticles have also been used in consumer products, as well as electronics, sensors, munitions, and propulsion technologies (14).


G. KAUR, N. KUMARa , A. TIWARI School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Airport Road, Bhopal. 462036, Madhya Pradesh, India a Division of Animal Health, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,